Throat Disorders

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils most commonly caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms may include sore throat and fever. When cause by group A streptococcus it is typically referred to as strep throat. The overwhelming majority of people recover completely with or without medication. In 40%, symptoms have resolved in three days and within one week in 85%, regardless of whether streptococcal infection is present or not. The most common cause is viral infection. The second most common cause is bacterial infection of which the predominant is Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes strep throat. The diagnosis of GABHS tonsillitis can be confirmed by culture of samples obtained by swabbing both tonsillar surfaces. Okumaya devam et

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The throat comprises of air and food passageways lying behind the nasal cavity and mouth and in the neck. It consists (from the top to the bottom) of the pharynx, epiglottis, larynx (voice box with vocal cords) and the upper part of the esophagus and trachea.

The pharynx is a muscular tube lying behind the nasal cavity and mouth, carrying air from the nose toward the larynx and food from the mouth toward the esophagus. Pharynx is what your doctor can see through your mouth during “checking your throat”


The epiglottis is a muscular fold that covers the entrance of the larynx during swallowing, thus preventing food from entering the lungs.

The larynx (voice box) is a tube made of muscles and cartilages and carrying air from the nose and throat toward the trachea. When your doctor checks your throat using a small mirror, he can see vocal cords within your larynx. From outside, larynx looks as a vertical tube in the front of your neck, being prominent in its upper part in men (Adam’s apple) and moving up and down during swallowing.

The uvula has two main functions :

  1. It blocks the passage into the nasal cavity when swallowing. This ensures that foods or fluids do not enter the nasal passages.
  2. It plays a role in articulation – assisting with the speech

The uvula also plays a part in snoring although this is not an intended function. It vibrates vigorously in those that snore and is partly responsible for the rough sound during snoring.

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How To Use Nasal Sprays Correctly?


How to use a nasal spray?

Nasal sprays work best when using correctly.

  1. Gently blow your nose to clear it of mucus.
  2. Remove the cap and shake the bottle.
  3. Tilt your head slightly forward.
  4. Hold the pump bottle with your thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top.
  5. Tilt your head forward slightly and breath out slowly.
  6. Close one nostril by gently pressing against the side of your   nose with  your finger.



7. Insert the tip of the nasal spray into the other nostril, aim the nozzle toward the outside of the nose away from the nasal septum.




8. Squeeze the pump as you begin to breath in slowlythrough your nose. Sniff gently as you spray the medication, as if smelling your favorite food or a flower. Don’t snort the spray, which can cause the medication to go into your throat.

9.  Remove the spray from the nostril and breathe out through your   mouth.

10. Repeat this procedure for the other nostril

11. Replace the lid on the bottle.

* Aiming the bottle laterally toward outside the nose will avoid irritation and nosebleeding. Especially for nasal steroids.

* Decongestant nasal sprays should not be used for longer than a   week, as this  can cause the nasal congestion to come back (rebound congestion).

* If you are using your nasal spray correctly, the medication should not drip from your nose or down the back of your throat.

* Nasal sprays work best when used regularly and consistently. It may take up to two weeks of using a nasal spray before you notice the full effects.

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Ear Anatomy


The ear consisits of three parts; the outer ear (external ear) which consists of the pinna and the ear canal, the middle ear and the inner ear.   The pinna is a flesh covered cartilage appendage. It helps to get sound in.  The ear canal is important, unless the canal is open, hearing will be dampened. The ear drum is between the external and middle ear. The middle ear, an air-filled cavity behind the ear drum (tympanic membrane), includes the three ear bones or ossicles: the malleus (or hammer), incus (or anvil), and stapes (or stirrup). The opening of the Eustachian tube is also within the middle ear. The malleus has a long process (the manubrium, or handle) that is attached to the mobile portion of the eardrum. The incus is the bridge between the malleus and stapes. The stapes is the smallest named bone in the human body. The three bones are arranged so that movement of the tympanic membrane causes movement of the malleus, which causes movement of the incus, which causes movement of the stapes. When the stapes footplate pushes on the oval window, it causes movement of fluid within the cochlea (a portion of the inner ear).The ossicles help in amplification of sound waves by nearly six times.

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What Do Otolaryngologists Treat?

The Ears– The unique domain of otolaryngologists is the treatment of ear disorders. They are trained in both the medical and surgical treatment of hearing, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders. Otolaryngologists also manage congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and inner ear.

The Nose-About 35 million people develop chronic sinusitis each year, making it one of the most common health complaints in America. Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of otolaryngologists. Management of the nasal area includes allergies and sense of smell. Breathing through, and the appearance of, the nose are also part of otolaryngologists’ expertise.

The Throat-Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area. Also specific to otolaryngologists is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.

The Head and Neck-This center of the body includes the important nerves that control sight, smell, hearing, and the face. In the head and neck area, otolaryngologists are trained to treat infectious diseases, both benign and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They perform both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

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What is ENT?


Ear nose throat (ENT) doctors (Otolaryngologists) are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structure of the head and neck.

Their special skills include diagnosing and managing diseases of the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face. Otolaryngologists diagnose, treat, and manage specialty-specific disorders as well as many primary care  problems in both children and adults.

The common diseases and conditions treated by ENT specialist or Otolaryngologist include:

Hearing:Perforated Ear Drum,Conductive hearing loss,Sensori – Neural hearing loss,Profound sensori – Neural hearing loss,Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss,Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss,Weak tympanic membrane,Otitis media,Otospongiosis,Granulation of External Auditory Canal,Granulation of Tympanic membrane,Keloid,Narrow External Auditory Canal with Osteoma

Voice:Vocal cord polyp,Vocal cord cyst,Vocal cord palsy,Vocal cord nodules, larynx cancer

Nose And Sinus:Preauricular Sinus – Infection,Deviated Nasal Septum,Puss filled sinus infection,Perforated Septum,Polyps within Sinuses,Fractured Nasal bone,Fluid collection in Septum,Spur on Septum,Ethmoidal Polyps,CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) leak,Antroconal Polyps

Head And Neck:Growth in Larynx & Trachea,Thyro Glossal Cyst,Ranula below tongue,Tongue tie,Salivary gland disoders,Tongue-tie release,Thyroid disorders and Neck swelling,Enlarged Lymph node,Parotid gland disorders,Tonsil disorders,Foreign body in Head and Neck region,Foreign body in Oesophagus,Head and Neck trauma,Narrowing of food pipe,Lymphnode enlargement

Sleep And Snoring

Balance Disorders-Giddiness

Tinnitus treatment


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Have you any information about ear, nose and throat health problems?

Have you ever consulted a physician for any trouble of your ears, nose and throat?

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